Human immunodeficiency virus

Anatori Sealife Comments 0 28th May 2012

Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV-1, the primary pathogen of HIV-infection and AIDS spread in North and South America, Europe and Asia. HIV has the form of a sphere with not more than 100-120 nm in diameter. For instance, by its structural organization, it is close to lentiviruses.

The main factors that cause a higher risk of HIV-contamination are homosexual relations and sex promiscuity, including intercourse with drug addicts who inject drugs intravenously. However, transplantation and perinatal transmission from mother to baby are less critical.

Human immunodeficiency virus and risk

The ranging of risk groups in most advanced countries is identical – homosexual and bisexual men (43%), heterosexual individuals with drugs taken intravenously (26%), homosexual and bisexual individuals using drugs intravenously (5%), heterosexual individuals (10%), children (1%). Recipients of blood, blood components or transplants (2%), haemophiliacs (1%), other people for whom the risk factor has not been determined (6%). Penetrating the blood’s current HIV infects activated CD4+ (helpers) T-lymphocytes using the CD4 molecule as a receptor. Human immunodeficiency virus also infects monocytes, macrophages, congenial cells, expressional CD4-like molecules. And, the cells become a lax system for the pathogen.

Human organism

The primary reservoir of HIV in the human body is lymphoid tissue. With the pathogen being continuously reproduced even in the early stages of the symptom-free disease. The mechanism of contamination of intestinal epithelial cells has not been discovered yet. However, the receptors for HIV origination are likely to be membranous glycolipids. Early viraemic stage.

The presence of the human immunodeficiency virus in the blood can be revealed within different periods. Viraemia reaches a high 1-12 days after the contamination and lasts until specific antibodies appear (a period of seroconversion). Besides, the analysis of the laboratory data with long-living patients suggests that HIV over different periods (up to 10-15 years) no symptoms of the disease. Moreover, throughout that period, the body defences suppress pathogen reproduction more or less effectively. However, low doses of cocaine added to the infected mononuclear cell culture intensify HIV replication, possibly on the account.


That mechanism can contribute to the frequency rate of AIDS development with drug addicts. The incubation usually lasts 2-4 weeks. The symptoms of Human immunodeficiency virus are similar to those with infectious mononucleosis or a chill. Fever, lymphangitis, a sore throat, myalgia, headache, indisposition and sometimes a maculopapular rash are most common. However, for lack of pathognomonic signs, diagnostic mistakes may result. Some primary manifestations with most patients may disappear.

However, headache and adenopathy may linger for a long time. Fever, excessive overnight perspiration and headache with no specific or opportunistic infection in evidence, are indicative of the fact that a symptomless HIV-infection. Diarrhoea can most probably result from the human immunodeficiency virus contamination of the intestinal mucosa. Kaposi’s sarcoma may develop quite early. The dynamics can show energy and give some other laboratory proof of immunodeficiency. Certain concomitant infections tend to arise, especially oral candidiasis, leukoplakia of buccal mucosa, upper and lower respiratory tract infections and periodontium disorders.

The primary manifestations of opportunistic infections are pneumocystis pneumonia and toxoplasmosis. Oesophageal candidiasis, cryptococcal pneumonia and meningitis, recurrent herpetic infections with general exhaustion in the background often develop.