Serum albumin allows us to establish misbalance of albumin content (hypo- and hyperalbuminemia) at various pathologic conditions. Besides, in the case of dehydration, this protein concentration can increase.
Serum albumin diseases
Decrease of concentration SA in case of malnutrition, infringements of resorption, diseases of the liver (cirrhosis, atrophy, toxic damage, blastomas). Moreover, the loss of albumin increases in cases of:
- the renal syndrome,
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract,
- massive effusions (exudates).
Increased disintegration of albumin also takes place at sepsis, fever, traumas, blastomas.
Albumin is the main blood protein produced in the human liver. This substance is a separate group of proteins – the so-called protein fractions. Changing the ratio of individual protein fractions in the blood often gives the doctor more meaningful information than just the total protein. Determination of albumin is necessary for the diagnosis of liver and kidney diseases, rheumatic and oncological diseases.
It accounts for more than half of all blood proteins. The liver synthesizes it, and its half-life is 17 days. Since albumin molecules take part in binding water, when its level falls below 30 g / l, some water moves from the vascular bed to denser tissues, causing oedema.
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Maintaining the oncotic blood plasma pressure is the primary function. Therefore, with a decrease in the content of albumin in the plasma, the oncotic pressure decreases. Then, the bloodstream releases the fluid into the tissue. “Hungry” oedema develops. This substance provides about 80% of the oncotic plasma pressure. The body quickly loses albumin in the urine in kidney disease. Therefore, they play an essential role in the drop in oncotic pressure in such conditions, which leads to the development of oedema.
Albumin is a reserve of free amino acids in the body, formed as a result of proteolytic cleavage of these proteins.
Transport function. This protein transports many substances in the blood, especially those that are poorly soluble in water:
- free fatty acids
- fat-soluble vitamins
- hormones (thyroxine, triiodothyronine, cortisol)
- metabolites (uric acid, bilirubin)
- some ions (Ca2 +, Mg2 +)
For the binding of calcium in the albumin molecule, there are special calcium-binding centres. In complex with this substance, many drugs are transported, for example, acetylsalicylic acid, penicillin.
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