Human immunodeficiency virus

By Anatoli Silajev

January 17, 2022

Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV-1, the primary pathogen of HIV infection and AIDS, spread in North and South America, Europe and Asia. HIV has the form of a sphere with not more than 100-120 nm in diameter. For instance, by its structural organization, it is close to lentiviruses.

The main factors that cause a higher risk of HIV contamination are homosexual relations and sex promiscuity, including intercourse with drug addicts who inject drugs intravenously. However, transplantation and perinatal transmission from mother to baby are less critical.

Human immunodeficiency virus and risk

– homosexual and bisexual men (43%), – heterosexual individuals with drugs taken intravenously (26%), – homosexual and bisexual individuals using drugs intravenously (5%), – heterosexual individuals (10%), – children (1%), – recipients of blood, blood components or transplants (2%), – haemophiliacs (1%), – and people with not determined risk factors (6%).

The ranging of risk groups in most advanced countries is identical:

Penetrating the blood's current HIV infects activated CD4+ (helpers) T-lymphocytes using the CD4 molecule as a receptor. The human immunodeficiency virus also infects monocytes, macrophages, congenial cells, expressional CD4-like molecules. And the cells become a lax system for the pathogen.

Human organism

The primary reservoir of HIV in the human body is lymphoid tissue, with the pathogen being continuously reproduced even in the early stages of the symptom-free disease. Nobody has discovered the mechanism of contamination of intestinal epithelial cells yet. However, the receptors for HIV origination are likely to be membranous glycolipids. Early viraemic stage.

Research can reveal the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus in the blood within different periods. Viraemia reaches a high 1-12 days after the contamination and lasts until specific antibodies appear (a period of seroconversion). Besides, the analysis of the laboratory data with long-living patients suggests that HIV over different periods (up to 10-15 years) has no symptoms of the disease. Moreover, throughout that period, the body defences suppress pathogen reproduction more or less effectively. However, low doses of cocaine added to the infected mononuclear cell culture intensify HIV replication, possibly on the account.



That mechanism can contribute to the frequency of AIDS development with drug addicts. The incubation usually lasts 2-4 weeks. The symptoms of the Human immunodeficiency virus are similar to those with infectious mononucleosis or a chill. Fever, lymphangitis, a sore throat, myalgia, headache, indisposition and sometimes a maculopapular rash are most common. However, for lack of pathognomonic signs, diagnostic mistakes may result. Some primary manifestations with most patients may disappear.

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However, headaches and adenopathy may linger for a long time. In evidence, fever, excessive overnight perspiration, and headache with no specific or opportunistic infection indicate a symptomless HIV infection. Diarrhoea can probably result from the human immunodeficiency virus contamination of the intestinal mucosa. Kaposi's sarcoma may develop quite early. The dynamics can show energy and give some other laboratory proof of immunodeficiency. Certain concomitant infections tend to arise, especially oral candidiasis, leukoplakia of buccal mucosa, upper and lower respiratory tract infections and periodontium disorders.

Besides, the primary manifestations of opportunistic infections are pneumocystis pneumonia and toxoplasmosis. Oesophageal candidiasis, cryptococcal pneumonia and meningitis, recurrent herpetic infections with general exhaustion in the background often develop.