The polyps of the colon have attracted the attention of coloproctologists around the world since intestinal cancer, in the vast majority of cases, develops from benign polyps (adenoma).
Polyps of the large intestine are the outgrowth of the mucosa of the intestinal wall. Polyps can be single and multiple, located on a pedicle or a broad base (“sessile”).
Different types of polyps are distinguished depending on the structure’s shape and features. In particular, they determine polyps inflammatory (appearing on the site of inflammation), hyperplastic (the result of the excessive proliferation of healthy tissue) and neoplastic (growth of atypical (abnormal) cells). The latter can be both benign and malignant.
An essential role in the development of polyps of the large intestine is played by:
Suppose the polyp of the large intestine is small – a few millimetres in diameter. In that case, it does not disturb the patient, and operators can only detect it by chance when examining the colon. Large polyps reaching a few centimetres can ulcerate, break through the intestine wall, and lead to bleeding.
With prolonged existence, polyp cells can become malignant. On average, one in five of them turns into cancer.
The primary diagnosis method is a colonoscopy, which examines the intestinal tract up to one meter with a special endoscope inserted into the rectum. Further, the endoscope passes through the bends of the intestine through all its constrictions. Every person over 50 years of age must undergo this procedure. If the family has cases of colon cancer, it is necessary to undergo colonoscopy regularly, starting from a young age.
Conservative treatment is futile. Surgeons should surgically remove and examine any colon polyps found during a colonoscopy under a microscope.
Doctors perform surgical treatment of colon polyps with endoscopic equipment. So, they insert a flexible endoscope into the rectum (colonoscopy endoscope), equipped with a loop electrode, which grasps, squeezes, and cuts off the polyp’s leg. Likewise, doctors use electrocoagulation to cauterise polyps in the bowels. However, they remove large ones in parts.
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