The polyps of the colon are attracted by the attention of coloproctologists around the world since intestinal cancer in the vast majority of cases develops from benign polyp (adenoma).
Polyps of the large intestine are the outgrowth of the mucosa of the intestinal wall. Polyps can be single and multiple, located on a pedicle or a broad base (“sessile”).
Depending on the shape and features of the structure, different types of polyps are distinguished. In particular, they distinguish polyps inflammatory (appearing on the site of inflammation), hyperplastic (the result of the excessive proliferation of healthy tissue) and neoplastic (growth of atypical (abnormal) cells). The latter can be both benign and malignant.
An essential role in the development of polyps of the large intestine is played by:
If the polyp of the large intestine is small – a few millimetres in diameter, then it does not disturb the patient at all, and operators can only detect it by chance when examining the colon. Large polyps reaching a few centimetres can ulcerate, break through the intestine wall, and lead to bleeding.
With prolonged existence, polyp cells can become malignant. On average, one in five of them turns into cancer.
The primary diagnosis method is a colonoscopy, which examines the intestinal tract up to one meter with a special endoscope inserted into the rectum. Further, the endoscope passes through the bends of the intestine through all its constrictions. Every person over 50 years of age must undergo this procedure. If the family has cases of colon cancer, it is necessary to undergo colonoscopy regularly, starting from a young age.
Conservative treatment is futile. Surgeons should surgically remove and examine under a microscope any colon polyps found during a colonoscopy.
Doctors perform surgical treatment of colon polyps with endoscopic equipment. So, they insert a flexible endoscope into the rectum (colonoscopy endoscope), equipped with a loop electrode, which grasps, squeezes, and cuts off the polyp’s leg. Likewise, doctors use electrocoagulation to cauterise polyps in the bowels. However, they remove large ones in parts.
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