Cancer of the rectum is a malignant form that originates from the epithelium of the intestinal mucosa. Cancer develops in four stages, each of which has its specific clinical manifestations, different treatment and survival prognosis. Often malignant processes of the intestine are diagnosed at a late stage of the disease, which associates with the slow development of pathology and meagre symptoms in the first and second stages. There is a linear pattern between the phase of the disease and the survival prognosis. Therefore, we will analyse how the diagnosis is carried out, what symptoms of the intestinal carcinoma manifest, and what treatment can guarantee a favourable prognosis. Cancer of the rectum is different from other types of cancer because of dependencies on the stage of the pathology.
Colon cancer is one of the most dangerous oncological diseases since it often leads to the patient’s death within a few months after the diagnosis. Treatment of the disease is carried out depending on the stage at which it was identified. Most often this is a 3rd or 4th phase.
Treatment in the first stage is performed surgically. Thus, it is possible to eliminate the cause of the disease, but it is impossible to prevent it from repeating. During surgery, the tumour itself and a small area of healthy tissue are removed. After this, the oncological patient is carefully monitored, if necessary, repeated diagnosis is performed, and conservative treatment is prescribed. Such treatment includes antineoplastic drugs, immunomodulating agents, and therapeutic drugs.
Survival after removal of the tumour of the large intestine becomes favourable, is more than 90% complete recovery.
To date, medicine has not yet crossed the threshold of knowledge about the causes of cancer; otherwise, it would be possible to treat a tumour at any stage of it successfully. There are isolated cases when the patient managed to defeat cancer at the last phase, but not due to traditional treatment, but in spite of his own fear. Such people, hoping to the last, tried all the options of holistic therapies and remained alive.
Survival of the patient in the first stage of colorectal cancer – from five years, in the second stage – from 5 to 15 years, the third stage leaves the patient no more than 5-7 years, the last stage of colon cancer has a minimum percentage of favorable outcome, and the five-year survival rate is not more than 5%.
It is essential that it is impossible to defeat oncology with the only drug or one operation. We have to create new technologies and combine existing ones continually.