Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx mucosa. The disease can be acute and chronic. Acute laryngitis is usually isolated. As a rule, it is a variation of acute respiratory disease, flu, scarlet fever and pertussis. It is promoted by general and local hypothermia, voice overstrain, inhalation of dusty air, irritating steams and gases, undernutrition, smoking, immoderate drinking, etc. The disease causes a dry, tickling, smarting and scraping sensation in the throat. It is attended by a dry cough later accompanied by expectoration. The voice becomes hoarse, coarse or aphonic. Patients may feel pain when swallowing, suffer from headaches and have a slight rise in temperature. The disease usually lasts 7-10 days. It may turn into a subacute or a chronic form in adverse conditions.
Chronic laryngitis, as a rule, is caused by the same factors as the acute form but is persistent and long-lasting. It results in impaired tissue trophicity and prompts a dystrophic process. Depending on the character of the disturbances specified, chronic laryngitis can have catarrhal, hypertrophic and atrophic forms. Chronic catarrhal laryngitis is accompanied by chronic (often diffuse) inflammation of the larynx mucosa.
Chronic hypertrophic laryngitis is characterised by epithelium and submucosa vegetation. It can be limited and diffuse. The limited form features hyperplasia of separate segments of the larynx mucosa (vocal or vestibular folds, subfold space, interarytenoid area, etc). One must differentiate between chronic hypertrophic laryngitis and specific infectious granulomas (tuberculosis, syphilis, etc.) and tumours.
Chronic atrophic laryngitis is characterised by the larynx mucosa’s thinning and atrophy. As a rule, it develops as one of the components of the atrophic process in the mucosa of the upper respiratory tracts. Symptoms: a dry, tickling, smarting and scraping sensation in the throat, a dry cough, hoarseness. Laryngoscope reveals a thinned and dry mucosa covered with solid mucus.