The effect of intestinal bacteria (microbiota) on human health and disease through the regulation of the immune system has become a fact of scientific and clinical significance. How does the intestine affect the immune system?
Now it was evident that the intestinal microbiota has a profound effect on the hosts immune system as a whole and the development of autoimmune diseases both inside and outside the intestines depends on it. The question of how the guts affect the immune system worries many people who want to maintain their health in excellent condition.
Besides genetic factors, environmental factors such as food and drugs are essential for the formation and composition of the intestinal microbiota. These factors should be treated with extreme caution, since the constant consumption of unsaturated fats, carrageenan, excessive use of antibiotics, causes or significantly increases the risk of autoimmune diseases through the use of immunomodulation mediated by intestinal bacteria.
The answer to the question of how the intestine affects the immune system is based on the fact that the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is closely related to the development and health of a person and directly affects all aspects of the bodys vital activity.
Scientific and technical achievements of recent years have allowed scientists to significantly expand research methods and gain a system-wide understanding of how a persons immune system works. What is explicitly responsible for specific failures in the body.
Different types of commensal intestinal bacteria promote specific differentiation of naive CD4 + T-cells, cells that have not yet entered into the recognition of foreign antigens. Naive CD4 + T cells can differentiate into four main cell types: Th1, Th2, Tregs and Th17. Differentiation of each line requires the induction of a transcription factor that is unique to each line. After differentiation, each line selects a unique set of cytokines. Th1 cells play an essential role in eliminating intracellular pathogens, while Th2 functions to combat parasitic infection.
The primary purpose of Th17 is to control the infection, and Tregs to regulate the immune response.
One of the first review articles on the relationship of the immune system and human gastrointestinal bacteria was published in Science in 2006 by Metagenomic Analysis of the Human Distal Gut Microbiome.
Recent studies suggest that, in cases of certain diseases, the work of our immune system directly depends on the state of our gastrointestinal tract, the number and types of microorganisms that inhabit it and their interaction. The last article in nature.com talks about some research by scientists in this area: “Among the millions of millions of bacteria that live in the intestines, scientists have discovered several species that play a principal role in keeping us healthy.”
The article, of course, does not fully cover the whole field of activity and the influence of the human microbiota on the state of human body but gives a general idea of the strength and capabilities of the gastrointestinal tract bacteria.
In addition to confronting various diseases, the gastrointestinal microflora has a direct impact on the development and normal functioning of the brain. Attempts to kill the intestinal microflora lead to the suspension of the process of neurogenesis, the production of new cells by the brain. These are basic facts about how the intestine affect the immune system. And to maintain a healthy microflora, it is necessary to undergo a colonic irrigation procedure periodically.