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Serum albumin

Anatori Sealife Comments 0 11th April 2019
Serum albumin diseases

Serum albumin allows us to establish a misbalance of albumin content (hypo- and hyperalbuminemia) at various pathologic conditions. Besides, in the case of dehydration, this protein concentration can increase.

Serum albumin diseases

Decrease of concentration SA in case of malnutrition, infringements of resorption, diseases of the liver (cirrhosis, atrophy, toxic damage, blastomas). Moreover, the loss of albumin increases in cases of:

  • the renal syndrome,
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract,
  • burns,
  • bleeding,
  • massive effusions (exudates).

Increased albumin disintegration also occurs in sepsis, fever, traumas, and blastomas.

Albumin is the main blood protein produced in the human liver. This substance is a separate group of proteins – the so-called protein fractions. Changing the ratio of individual protein fractions in the blood often gives the doctor more meaningful information than just the total protein. Determination of albumin is necessary to diagnose liver and kidney diseases and rheumatic and oncological diseases.

It accounts for more than half of all blood proteins. The liver synthesises it, and its half-life is 17 days. Since albumin molecules participate in binding water, when its level falls below 30 g / l, some water moves from the vascular bed to denser tissues, causing oedema.



Functions:

Maintaining the oncotic blood plasma pressure is the primary function. Therefore, the oncotic pressure decreases with a decrease in albumin content in the plasma. Then, the bloodstream releases the fluid into the tissue. “Hungry” oedema develops. This substance provides about 80% of the oncotic plasma pressure. The body quickly loses albumin in the urine in kidney disease. Therefore, they play an essential role in the drop in oncotic pressure in such conditions, leading to oedema development.

Albumin is a reserve of free amino acids in the body, formed due to proteolytic cleavage of these proteins.

Transport function. This protein transports many substances in the blood, especially those that are poorly soluble in water:

  • free fatty acids
  • fat-soluble vitamins
  • steroids
  • hormones (thyroxine, triiodothyronine, cortisol)
  • metabolites (uric acid, bilirubin)
  • some ions (Ca2 +, Mg2 +)

There are special calcium-binding centres for calcium binding in the albumin molecule. Many drugs are transported in complex with this substance, such as acetylsalicylic acid and penicillin.